Weight loss, in the context
of medicine, health, or physical
fitness, refers to a reduction
of the total body mass, by a
mean loss of fluid, body fat
(adipose tissue), or lean mass
(namely bone mineral deposits,
muscle, tendon, and other
connective tissue). Weight loss
can either occur unintentionally
because of malnourishment or an
underlying disease, or from a
conscious effort to improve an
actual or perceived overweight
or obese state. "Unexplained"
weight loss that is not caused
by reduction in calorific intake
or exercise is called cachexia
and may be a symptom of a
serious medical condition.
It’s a question on the minds of most people once they’ve decided they need to shed some pounds—what is the best diet for weight loss? While that’s not an unreasonable question, it often implies an approach that is less than optimal, which is to plan on adopting a radically restrictive mode of eating for a while, until the weight is lost, and then going back to eating as normal. Instead of embracing “fad diets,” people who have lost weight—and kept it off—usually have made a permanent shift toward healthier eating habits. Simply replacing unhealthy foods with healthy ones—not for a few weeks, but forever will help you achieve weight loss while also offering numerous other benefits. So a better set of questions might be, “What is a healthy diet? What does a healthy diet look like?”
A healthy diet favors natural, unprocessed foods over pre-packaged meals and snacks. It is balanced, meaning that it provides your body with all the nutrients and minerals it needs to function best. It emphasizes plant-based foods—especially fruits and vegetables—over animal foods. It contains plenty of protein. It is low in sugar and salt. It incorporates “healthy fats” including fish, olive oil and other plant-derived oils.
Here a few examples of healthy meals for weight loss. For breakfast, a bowl of bran flakes with sliced strawberries and walnuts with nonfat milk. For lunch, a turkey sandwich on wheat with vegetables and an olive oil and vinegar dressing. For dinner, a salmon steak on a bed of spinach.
You don’t have to cut out snacks in order to eat a healthy diet, either. Healthy snacks for weight loss include almonds or pistachios, string cheese with an apple, Greek yogurt or a banana with peanut butter.
Before you begin your weight-loss journey, do some brainstorming about the kinds of healthy foods you enjoy so that you can have lots of choices as you plan your meals and snacks. Remember that the best diet is the one you’ll stick to, so don’t rush out and buy a bunch of “health foods” that you know you’ll never eat.
What's the healthiest diet?
There is no single diet that nutritionists have deemed “the healthiest.” However, there are several styles of eating that experts either have designed for optimal health or have observed to be healthy when consumed traditionally by different people around the world. Such styles of eating tend to have a few things in common—they tend to be plant-based diets, they emphasize healthy fats, no simple sugars and low sodium, and they favor natural foods over the highly processed fare typical of much of the Western diet.
For example, the Mediterranean style diet gets its name from the foods available to various cultures located around the Mediterranean Sea. It heavily emphasizes minimally processed fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts and whole grains. It contains moderate amounts of yogurt, cheese, poultry and fish. Olive oil is its primary cooking fat. Red meat and foods with added sugars are only eaten sparingly. Besides being an effective weight loss method, eating a Mediterranean style diet is linked to a lower risk of heart disease, diabetes, depression and some forms of cancer.
Experts developed the DASH diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) specifically as a heart-healthy regimen. The combination of food types contained in the diet seem to work together especially effectively to lower blood pressure and decrease risk of heart failure. The key features of DASH are low cholesterol and saturated fats, lots of magnesium, calcium, fiber and potassium, and little to no red meat and sugar. Unsurprisingly, that equates to a list of foods similar to those of the Mediterranean diet—whole grains, vegetables, fruits, fish, poultry, nuts and olive oil.
As its name implies, the MIND diet (Mediterranean-DASH diet Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay) was designed by doctors to take elements from the Mediterranean and DASH diets that seemed to provide benefits to brain health and stave off dementia and cognitive decline. In practice, it is very similar to both the Mediterranean and DASH diets, but it puts stronger emphasis on leafy green vegetables and berries, and less emphasis on fruit and dairy.
In recent years, the Nordic diet has emerged as both a weight-loss and health-maintenance diet. Based on Scandinavian eating patterns, the Nordic diet is heavy on fish, apples, pears, whole grains such as rye and oats, and cold-climate vegetables including cabbage, carrots and cauliflower. Studies have supported its use both in preventing stroke and in weight loss.
What do all of these diets have in common? They’re all good for your heart, they all consist of natural unprocessed foods and they all contain plenty of plant-based dishes. Eating for your health—especially your heart health—by adopting elements from these diets is a smart way to lose weight.
What is intermittent fasting?
You’ve probably heard some inspiring success stories about intermittent fasting. But is fasting healthy, and does intermittent fasting work?
Fasting—abstaining from eating for some period of time—is an ancient practice that is safe when not taken to extremes. Traditionally, the benefits of fasting have been both spiritual and physical. People who fast for religious reasons often report a stronger focus on spiritual matters during the fast. Physically, a simple fast lowers blood sugar, reduces inflammation, improves metabolism, clears out toxins from damaged cells and has been linked to lower risk of cancer, reduced pain from arthritis and enhanced brain function.
Intermittent fasting means dividing one’s time between “eating windows” and periods of abstention on a regular basis. A common intermittent fasting schedule might restrict eating to the hours of 7:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m., with the remaining 16 hours of the day spent fasting. But there is no specific, prescribed schedule. Some people have more or less generous eating windows, setting the rule that they will not eat after, say, 8:00 p.m.—or, on the considerably less generous side, only allowing themselves to eat every other day.
The science behind intermittent fasting is based on altering the body’s metabolism. During a period without eating, insulin levels drop to the point that the body begins burning fat for fuel. Additionally, the thinking goes, by slowing the body’s metabolism, you cause your appetite to drop off and thus will consume fewer calories when you resume eating.
Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefits of intermittent fasting for weight loss. However, it’s not clear that it is any more effective than simply restricting calories and following a normal eating schedule. One possible reason for the success of intermittent fasting is that most practitioners have quit the habit of eating during the late evening and night hours. Restricting eating to earlier in the day aligns better with our bodies’ circadian rhythms and is less likely to cause us to store our food in fat cells. Since intermittent fasting is difficult for many people to adhere to, a wise alternative might be to consume a low-calorie Mediterranean diet and to stop the day’s eating in late afternoon.
There are certain people who should not try intermittent fasting without first checking with their doctor, such those with diabetes or heart disease.
Intermittent fasting is a very “lifestyle-intensive” dietary pattern, meaning that it is challenging to maintain in the face of normal social relationships. If the rest of your family is eating while you’re fasting, you might be tempted to indulge or to surrender the family-meal ritual. If your job requires you to dine with clients or colleagues, you’ll find an intermittent fasting schedule difficult to maintain. Remember that the best healthy eating plan is the one you’ll stick to.
What’s a high-fat weight loss diet?
It sounds counterintuitive, but many people find success losing weight—especially initially—by eating more fat, not less. Called a ketogenic or Keto diet, this method requires shifting the main source of calories over to fatty foods—between 75% and 90% of what you eat, with only 10-20% of your calories coming from protein and a mere 5% from carbohydrates. The theory is that by eating so many healthy fats and restricting carbohydrates, you enter an altered metabolic state in which you force your body to begin relying on fat for energy, burning away your fat stores instead of sugar for fuel.
Research does show that keto is an effective way to jump-start weight loss and improve blood-sugar levels. However, it is hard to maintain, and to date we are lacking long-term studies that show it to be a sustainable eating pattern for keeping weight off.
What does a Healthy Eating Plate look like?
Because both weight loss and overall health are tied to some basic eating patterns, we have developed the Harvard Healthy Eating Plate as a model for meal planning and for your overall balanced diet. Imagine a round dinner plate with a line running vertically down its center dividing it evenly in two. One half of the plate should be taken up by equal portions of whole grains (not refined grains like white bread and white rice) and healthy protein (such as fish, nuts, beans and poultry—not red meat or processed meats). Two-thirds of the other half should be filled with vegetables, with the remaining portion consisting of fruit. Try to inject a lot of variety into this half of your plate (or half of your diet)—eat fruits in a variety of colors and vegetables of all types (but don’t count potatoes or French fries as vegetables).
To one side of the plate, picture a glass of water, since that’s the best drink for weight loss and for overall health (At some meals you can substitute coffee or tea with little to no sugar). Don’t drink more than a serving or two of milk each day.
To the other side of the plate, imagine a vessel containing healthy oils such as canola or olive oil. Use it for cooking or at the table instead of butter .
Remember the Healthy Eating Plate when you’re contemplating what to eat for a specific meal, when you’re grocery shopping, or when you’re strategizing about how to lose weight and keep it off. Adhering to its guidelines will optimize your chances of remaining healthy and of maintaining a desirable body weight.
The Diet Review: 39 popular
nutrition and weight-loss plans
and the science (or lack of
science) behind them - Harvard
These days, there are so many diet plans, it’s almost impossible to keep them all straight. Any diet book that becomes a blockbuster inevitably spawns variations, as publishers seek to capitalize on a trend—until the next big idea comes along, and throngs rush to embrace yet another new approach. Each diet is different, yet it seems to be accompanied by a raft of testimonials and purported science, showing why it is the ultimate diet for weight loss or health—or both.
Adding to the confusion are media reports of research studies that claim to “upend everything we thought we knew about nutrition.” Claims like these have launched countless diet books. But when you see such dramatic claims, remember that the science of nutrition doesn’t turn on a dime, and massive paradigm shifts don’t happen overnight. Rather, new evidence gets added to existing knowledge, and the overall consensus about optimal nutrition—based on many, many studies—evolves.
You might wonder, if so many nutrition “experts” disagree about how to eat, who’s right and who’s wrong? The truth is that there’s no one right way to eat. There are actually many ways to eat for health, but not every diet out there is one of those ways. This Special Health Report will help you sort through more than three dozen diet plans, so you can make the decision that’s right for you. You’ll learn about the common denominators of all healthy diets, and you’ll see plenty of examples of which diet patterns get it right and which ones miss the mark. Along with that, you’ll learn why the quality of the foods you eat matters more than choosing the “right” ratio of carbohydrates, protein, and fat.
For each diet we cover, we provide specific information—including any research that’s been done on the diet, how it meshes with nutrition research in general, whether it provides a good balance of nutrients, and whether it’s affordable and easy to follow. What works for one person will not necessarily work for another.
How will you know when you’ve found the right diet for you? It should provide balanced nutrition, appeal to your tastes, and be compatible with your cooking ability and schedule. Your diet should make your life healthier, not more complicated. Although making dietary changes can take time, effort, thought, and planning—as does any new healthful habit—a diet plan that works for you will gradually feel normal, and some of your healthy behaviors will even come to feel effortless. It’s the job of this report to help make sure that whatever diet you choose, it’s one that’s good for you.
Lean manufacturing is a production method aimed primarily at reducing times within the Lean Weight Loss production system as well as response times from suppliers and to customers. It is closely related to another concept called just-in-time manufacturing (JIT manufacturing in short). Just-in-time manufacturing tries to match production to demand by only supplying goods which have been ordered and focuses on efficiency, productivity (with a commitment to continuous improvement) and reduction of "wastes" for the producer and supplier of goods. Lean manufacturing adopts the just-in-time approach and additionally focuses on reducing cycle, flow and throughput times by further eliminating activities which do not add any value for the customer. Lean manufacturing also involves people who work outside of the manufacturing process, such as in marketing and customer service.
Lean manufacturing is particularly related to the operational model implemented in the post-war 1950s and 1960s by the Japanese automobile company Toyota called "The Lean Weight Loss Toyota Way" or the Toyota Production System (TPS). Toyota's system was erected on the two pillars of just-in-time inventory management and automated quality control. The seven "wastes" (muda in Japanese), first formulated by Toyota engineer Shigeo Shingo, are the waste of superfluous inventory of raw material and finished goods, the waste of overproduction (producing more than what is needed now), the waste of over-processing (processing or making parts beyond the standard expected by customer), the waste of transportation (unnecessary movement of people and goods inside the system), the waste of excess motion (mechanizing or automating before improving the method), the waste of waiting (inactive working periods due to job queues), and the waste of making defective products (reworking to fix avoidable defects in products and processes).
The term Lean was coined in 1988 by American businessman John Krafcik in his article "Triumph of the Lean Production System", and Lean Weight Loss defined in 1996 by American researchers James Womack and Daniel Jones to consist of five key principles: "Precisely specify value by specific product, identify the value stream for each product, make value flow without interruptions, let customer pull value from the producer, and pursue perfection."
Companies employ the strategy to increase efficiency. By receiving goods only as they need them for the production process, it reduces Lean Weight Loss inventory costs and wastage, and increases productivity and profit. The downside is that it requires producers to forecast demand accurately as the benefits can be nullified by minor delays in the supply chain. It may also impact negatively on workers due to added stress and inflexible conditions. A successful operation depends on a company having regular outputs, high-quality processes, and reliable suppliers.
Fredrick Taylor and Henry Ford documented their observations relating to these topics, and Shigeo Shingo and Taiichi Ohno applied their enhanced thoughts on the subject at Toyota in the 1930s. The resulting methods were researched from the mid-20th century and dubbed Lean by John Krafcik in 1988, and then were defined in The Machine that Changed the World[page needed] and further detailed by James Womack Lean Weight Loss and Daniel Jones in Lean Thinking (1996).
Evolution in Japan
The exact reasons for adoption of just-in-time manufacturing in Japan are unclear, but it has been suggested it started with a Lean Weight Loss requirement to solve the lack of standardization. American supply chain specialist Gergard Plenert has offered four reasons, paraphrased here. During Japan's post–World War II rebuilding of industry:
Japan's lack of cash made it difficult for industry to finance the big-batch, large inventory production methods common elsewhere.
Japan lacked space to build big factories loaded with inventory.
The Japanese islands lack natural resources with which to build products.
Japan had high unemployment, which meant that labor efficiency methods were not an obvious pathway to industrial success.
Thus, the Japanese "leaned out" their processes. "They built smaller factories ... in which the only materials housed in the Lean Weight Loss factory were those on which work was currently being done. In this way, inventory levels were kept low, investment in in-process inventories was at a minimum, and the investment in purchased natural resources was quickly turned around so that additional materials were purchased." Plenert goes on to explain Toyota's key role in developing this lean or just-in-time production methodology.
American industrialists recognized the threat of cheap offshore labor to American workers during the 1910s, and explicitly stated the Lean Weight Loss goal of what is now called lean manufacturing as a countermeasure. Henry Towne, past president of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, wrote in the foreword to Frederick Winslow Taylor's Shop Management (1911), "We are justly proud of the high wage rates which prevail throughout our country, and jealous of any interference with them by the products of the cheaper labor of other countries. To maintain this condition, to strengthen our control of home markets, and, above all, to broaden our opportunities in foreign markets where we must compete with the products of other industrial nations, we should welcome and encourage every influence tending to increase the efficiency of our productive processes." Lean Weight Loss
Continuous production improvement and incentives for such were documented in Lean Weight Loss Taylor's Principles of Scientific Management (1911):
"... whenever a workman proposes an improvement, it should be the policy of the management to make a careful analysis of the new method, and if necessary conduct a series of experiments to determine accurately the relative merit of the new suggestion and of the old standard. And whenever the new method is found to be markedly superior to the old, it should be adopted as the standard for the whole establishment."
"...after a workman has had the price per piece of the work he is doing lowered two or three times as a result of Lean Weight Loss his having worked harder and increased his output, he is likely entirely to lose sight of his employer's side of the case and become imbued with a grim determination to have no more cuts if soldiering [marking time, just doing what he is told] can prevent it."
Shigeo Shingo cites reading Principles of Scientific Management in 1931 and being "greatly impressed to Lean Weight Loss make the study and practice of scientific management his life's work".[need quotation to verify], [page needed]
Shingo and Taiichi Ohno were key to the design of Toyota's manufacturing process. Previously a textile company, Toyota moved into building automobiles in 1934. Kiichiro Toyoda, founder of Toyota Motor Corporation, directed the engine casting work and discovered many problems in their manufacturing, with wasted resources on repair of poor-quality castings. Toyota engaged in intense study of each stage of the process. In 1936, when Toyota won its first truck contract with the Japanese government, the processes encountered new problems, to which Toyota responded by developing Kaizen improvement teams, into what has become the Toyota Production System (TPS), and subsequently The Toyota Way.
Levels of demand in the postwar economy of Japan were low; as a result, the focus of mass production on lowest cost per item via economies of scale had little application. Having visited and seen supermarkets in the United States, Ohno recognized that the scheduling of work should not be driven by sales or production targets but by actual sales. Given the financial situation during this period, over-production had to be avoided, and thus the notion of "pull" (or "build-to-order" rather than target-driven "push") came to underpin production scheduling.
Evolution in the rest of the world
Just-in-time manufacturing was introduced in Australia in the 1950s by the British Motor Corporation (Australia) at Lean Weight Loss its Victoria Park plant in Sydney, from where the idea later migrated to Toyota. News about just-in-time/Toyota production system reached other western countries from Japan in 1977 in two English-language articles: one referred to the methodology as the "Ohno system", after Taiichi Ohno, who was instrumental in its development within Toyota. The other article, by Toyota authors in an international journal, provided additional details. Finally, those and other publicity were translated into implementations, beginning in 1980 and then quickly multiplying throughout industry in the United States and other developed countries. A seminal 1980 event was a conference in Detroit at Ford World Headquarters co-sponsored by the Repetitive Manufacturing Group (RMG), which had been founded 1979 within the American Production and Inventory Control Society (APICS) to seek advances in manufacturing. The principal speaker, Fujio Cho (later, president of Toyota Motor Corp.), in explaining the Toyota system, stirred up the audience, and led to the RMG's shifting gears from things like automation to just-in-time/Toyota production system.
At least some of audience's stirring had to do with a perceived clash between the new just-in-time regime and manufacturing resource planning (MRP II), a computer software-based system of manufacturing planning and control which had become prominent in industry in the 1960s and 1970s. Debates in professional meetings on just-in-time vs. MRP II were followed by published articles, one of them titled, "The Lean Weight Loss Rise and Fall of Just-in-Time". Less confrontational was Walt Goddard's, "Kanban Versus MRP II—Which Is Best for You?" in 1982. Four years later, Goddard had answered his own question with a book advocating just-in-time. Among the best known of MRP II's advocates was George Plossl, who authored two articles questioning just-in-time's kanban planning method and the "japanning of America". But, as with Goddard, Plossl later wrote that "JIT is a concept whose time has come". Lean Weight Loss
Just-in-time/TPS implementations may be found in many case-study articles from the 1980s and beyond. An article in a 1984 issue of Inc. magazine relates how Omark Industries (chain saws, ammunition, log loaders, etc.) emerged as an extensive just-in-time implementer under its US home-grown name ZIPS (zero inventory production system). At Omark's mother plant in Portland, Oregon, after the work force had received 40 hours of ZIPS training, they were "turned loose" and things began to happen. A first step was to "arbitrarily eliminate a week's lead time [after which] things ran smoother. 'People asked that we try taking another week's worth out.' After that, ZIPS spread throughout the plant's operations 'like an amoeba.'" The article also notes that Omark's 20 other plants were similarly engaged in ZIPS, beginning with pilot projects. For example, at one of Omark's smaller plants making drill bits in Mesabi, Minnesota, "large-size drill inventory was Lean Weight Loss cut by 92%, productivity increased by 30%, scrap and rework ... dropped 20%, and lead time ... from order to finished product was slashed from three weeks to three days." The Inc. article states that companies using just-in-time the most extensively include "the Big Four, Hewlett-Packard, Motorola, Westinghouse Electric, General Electric, Deere & Company, and Black and Decker".
By 1986, a case-study book on just-in-time in the U.S. was able to devote a full chapter to ZIPS at Omark, along with two chapters on just-in-time at several Hewlett-Packard plants, and single chapters for Harley-Davidson, John Deere, IBM-Raleigh, North Carolina, and California-based Apple Inc., a Toyota truck-bed plant, and New United Motor Manufacturing joint venture between Lean Weight Loss Toyota and General Motors.
Two similar, contemporaneous books from the U.K. are more international in scope. One of the books, with both conceptual articles and case studies, includes three sections on just-in-time practices: in Japan (e.g., at Toyota, Mazda, and Tokagawa Electric); in Europe (jmg Bostrom, Lucas Electric, Cummins Engine, IBM, 3M, Datasolve Ltd., Renault, Massey Ferguson); and in the US and Australia (Repco Manufacturing-Australia, Xerox Computer, and two on Hewlett-Packard). The second book, reporting on what was billed as the First International Conference on just-in-time manufacturing, includes case studies in three companies: Repco-Australia, IBM-UK, and 3M-UK. In addition, a day two keynote address discussed just-in-time as applied "across all disciplines, ... from accounting and systems to design and production".: J1–J9
Rebranding as "lean" Lean Weight Loss
John Krafcik coined the term Lean in his Lean Weight Loss 1988 article, "Triumph of the Lean Production System". The article states: (a) Lean manufacturing plants have higher levels of productivity/quality than non-Lean and (b) "The level of plant technology seems to have little effect on operating performance" (page 51). According to the article, risks with implementing Lean can be reduced by: "developing a well-trained, flexible workforce, product designs that are easy to build with high quality, and a supportive, high-performance supplier network" (page 51).
Middle era and to the present Lean Weight Loss
Three more books which include just-in-time Lean Weight Loss implementations were published in 1993, 1995, and 1996, which are start-up years of the lean manufacturing/lean management movement that was launched in 1990 with publication of the book, The Machine That Changed the World. That one, along with other books, articles, and case studies on lean, were supplanting just-in-time terminology in the 1990s and beyond. The same period, saw the rise of books and articles with similar concepts and methodologies but with alternative names, including cycle time management, time-based competition, quick-response manufacturing, flow, and pull-based production systems. Lean Weight Loss
There is more to just-in-time than its usual manufacturing-centered explication. Inasmuch as manufacturing ends with order-fulfillment to distributors, retailers, and end users, and also includes remanufacturing, repair, and warranty claims, just-in-time's concepts and methods have application downstream from manufacturing Lean Weight Loss itself. A 1993 book on "world-class distribution logistics" discusses kanban links from factories onward. And a manufacturer-to-retailer model developed in the U.S. in the 1980s, referred to as quick response, has morphed over time to what is called fast fashion.
The strategic elements of lean can be quite complex, and comprise multiple elements. Four different notions of lean have been identified: Lean Weight Loss
Lean as a fixed state or goal (being lean)
Lean as a continuous change process (becoming lean)
Lean as a set of tools or methods (doing lean/toolbox lean)
Lean as a philosophy (lean thinking)
The other way to Lean Weight Loss avoid market risk and control the supply efficiently is to cut down in stock. P&G has completed their goal to co-operate with Wal-Mart and other wholesales companies by building the response system of stocks directly to the suppliers companies.
In 1999, Spear and Bowen identified four rules which characterize the "Toyota DNA":
All work shall be highly specified as to content, sequence, timing, and outcome.
Every customer-supplier connection must be direct, and there must be an unambiguous yes or no way to send requests and receive responses.
The pathway for every product and service must be simple and direct.
Any improvement must be made in accordance with the scientific method, under the guidance of a teacher, at the lowest possible level in the organization.
This is a fundamentally Lean Weight Loss different approach from most improvement methodologies, and requires more persistence than basic application of the tools, which may partially account for its lack of popularity. The implementation of "smooth flow" exposes quality problems that already existed, and waste reduction then happens as a natural consequence, a system-wide perspective rather focusing directly upon the wasteful practices themselves.
Takt time is the rate at which products need to be produced to meet customer demand. The JIT system is designed to produce products at the rate of takt time, which ensures that products are produced just in time to meet customer demand. Lean Weight Loss
Sepheri provides a list of methodologies of Lean Weight Loss just-in-time manufacturing that "are important but not exhaustive": Lean Weight Loss
Housekeeping: physical organization and discipline.
Make it right the first time: elimination of defects.
Setup reduction: flexible changeover approaches.
Lot sizes of one: the ultimate lot size Lean Weight Loss and flexibility.
Uniform plant load: leveling as a control mechanism.
Balanced flow: organizing flow scheduling throughput.
Skill diversification: multi-functional workers.
Control by visibility: communication media for activity.
Preventive maintenance: flawless running, no defects.
Fitness for use: producibility, design Lean Weight Loss for process.
Compact plant layout: product-oriented design.
Streamlining movements: smoothing materials handling.
Supplier networks: extensions of the factory.
Worker involvement: small group Lean Weight Loss improvement activities.
Cellular manufacturing: production methods for flow.
Pull system: signal [kanban] replenishment/resupply systems.